Types Of Lorawan Network
LORA gateways, like the ones listed above, are physical devices that house the hardware and firmware used to connect IoT platforms to the cloud — an integral task that forms the backbone of a functioning IoT network. A gateway is a centralized node where IoT sensors store their collected records to be forwarded to network servers. Gateways receive the RF signals sent by the IoT terminal device and convert them into signals that are compatible with the network server.
The gateway is the starting point at which devices in the network can transmit their data to the gateway. IoT devices use the gateway as a central hub to store perceived knowledge and connect it to external networks. The gateway is a LORA concentrator that allows it to receive RF signals transmitted from Lorawan devices that are converted into a server-compatible signal such as Wi-Fi and then send the data back into the cloud.
This means that a large Lorraine system can run on more than one gateway. The gateway deals with the physical level that is unable to decrypt Lorawan packets and know their contents. The network server implements the Lorawan protocol to verify the authenticity and integrity of the devices, to duplicate the uplinks to selected gateways, to use downlinks and to send ADR commands to optimize the data rate of each device.
Lorawan devices implement a mechanism called an adaptive data rate (ADR) to increase the use of network resources. The data will be integrated into existing data management systems and IoT platforms such as AWS, Azure and Google Cloud.
Based on the data collected by the terminal, the network server asks the device to change its characteristics such as SF bandwidth and transmission performance. Each country specifies a different data rate (DR),  a number that refers to a certain bandwidth (SF) that is used to inform the device of the new features during the ADR process.
Lorawan networks are known for their long-range capability and effectiveness in transmitting signals in noisy urban environments. Information can travel long distances between devices without consuming too much power. Lorawan networks enable wireless connections to many sensors.
Lorawan Network Server is the heart of Lorawan Networks, enabling connectivity management and monitoring of devices, gateways and end-user applications. Its main objective is to ensure the security, scalability and reliability of the data that passes through the network.
Lorawan defines the communication protocols and system architecture of the network and the physical level of the LORA Alliance to enable far-reaching communication connections. Lorawan Cloud-based Media Access Control (MAC) Layer Protocol acts as a network layer protocol to manage communications between LPWAN gateways, end nodes and devices and Lora Alliance routing protocol. The Lorawan network server is responsible for managing the communication frequency, data rate and performance of the devices.
As soon as the data is transmitted to the end node, the devices receive several gateways for data packets from the central network servers. The network servers log the application servers, join the servers, and manage the downlink message queue.
Based on the LORA-MAC operating layer, there are three classes of terminals in the Lora network. These are classified as class A, class B and class C. They are designed to meet the varying requirements of a wide range of applications. Due to their bi-directional character, the classification of the communication is done manually.
LORAWAN enables terminal devices (sensors and actuators) to connect to the Lorawan network via radio gateways using LORA RF modulation. Most terminal applications are autonomous battery-powered sensors for digitizing physical conditions and environmental events. The Lorawan gateway receives LORA’s modulated RF messages from the terminal device and hears the removal of messages from Lorawan Network Servers (LNs) connected to the IP backbone.
According to LORA Alliance, the Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) is expected to support most of the billions of devices predicted for the Internet of Things (IoT). Typical wireless technologies that are used for this purpose, such as Zigbee, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, use multi-hop communication and mesh network topology to extend coverage ranges by up to 5%. Lorawan is designed from the ground up to optimize the life, capacity, range and cost of the LPWAN battery.
The growing of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the deployment of many applications using wireless networks ranging from smart cities to smart agriculture. The Lorawan specification provides seamless interoperability between smart devices without the need for complex local installations – and gives users, developers and businesses the freedom to deploy IoT. Through the Lorora Alliance, Lorawan enables far-reaching connectivity between IoT platforms and devices of different industries.
These are small devices that can be configured to measure a variety of variables such as humidity, open events / closed events etc. Using terminal screen commands on the Arduino, desktop applications and serial terminal, we can receive sensor data from Arduino sensing IoT platforms and devices. With our web-based device management console you can deploy, monitor and configure sensors on your Lorawan network.
Given its low energy consumption and long-distance transmission capacities, as well as well-developed protocols, it is an ideal long-distance wireless protocol for IoT devices. In this paper, we will examine how to use the LORA and Lorawan protocols to transmit ambient sensor data from an IoT device to an IoT gateway.
For terminal devices, Lorawan Class B mode offers not only uplinks in open class style, which are sent to the server, but also scheduled reception windows. This mode is an improvement over Class A and provides fixed-time options for devices to receive downlinks from the network, making it suitable for devices that monitor sensors and actuators.